November 25, 2022

New study investigates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on depression

Depression is a major cause of disease burden worldwide which affects approximately 350 million people. Although there are numerous medications for the treatment of depression, less than 50% of patients take medications for depression.

According to a new study published 2 weeks ago in BMC Psychiatry, researchers investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on depression and inflammatory biomarkers.

This study was an 8-week double blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT) including 56 patients with mild to moderate depression ranging from 18 to 60 years of age between May 2018 and June 2019. Each patient was randomly assigned to 50,000 IU of vitamin D or a placebo every two weeks over an 8-week period. Assessments included vitamin D 25-OH, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), interlukin (IL)- 1β, IL-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and depression severity (Beck Depression-II)(BDI-II).

As a result, increased vitamin D levels following 8-weeks of vitamin D supplementation led to a significant decrease in BDI-II scores in patients with mild to moderate depression. However, vitamin D supplementation did not significantly affect the inflammatory biomarker concentrations. It is important to note that most of the patients had normal levels of vitamin D at baseline.

Vitamin D effects on the brain is due to the production of the active form of vitamin D in the brain and gene expression of VDRs in areas associated with mood and social behaviors.

Other nutrients to consider include essential fatty acids as most individuals are often deficient. Fish oils are essential for one’s overall health and reduce inflammation. 

Also, some natural alternatives to anti-depressants include Sceletium tortuosum and Saffron flower. Sceletium tortuosum has attracted increasing attention over past few decades for promoting a sense of wellbeing and treating depression andSaffron flower has had numerous studies demonstrating positive outcomes on MDD and has gone head to head with SSRIs demonstrating the same efficacy. Additional considerations include bacillus coagulans and melatonin.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Kaviani M, Nikooyeh B, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on depression and some selected pro-inflammatory biomarkers: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Nov 11;22(1):694.

New study investigates the effects of citrulline supplementation on endothelial function and blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women

According to a study published this month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the effects of citrulline supplementation on endothelial function and blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women.

Citrulline is an amino acid that is converted to arginine in various cells. Unlike arginine, citrulline is not metabolized in the intestine or liver and does not induce tissue arginase. It inhibits arginase, and citrulline entering peripheral tissues, specifically the kidneys and vascular endothelium and may be readily converted to arginine, thus raising arginine levels, and enhancing nitric oxide production.

Studies have shown that citrulline raises plasma arginine levels significantly higher than arginine itself and has a longer half-life in the body, so citrulline can be thought of as a potent “time-released arginine.”

Aging and menopause are associated with a reduced nitric oxide bioavailability due to reduced L-arginine levels that leads to endothelial dysfunction. This precedes arterial stiffness as well as hypertension development.

 This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of L-citrulline supplementation on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, and blood pressures in hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study included 25 postmenopausal women between the ages of 50 to 74 years of age that were randomized to take wither 4 weeks of L-citrulline at 10 grams per day or a placebo. Assessments included serum L-arginine, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, aortic stiffness, and blood pressure measured at baseline and 4 weeks later.

As a result, the L-citrulline supplementation group showed increased L-arginine levels and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation compared to the placebo. In addition, the resting aortic diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of L-citrulline supplementation compared to placebo.

In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that L-citrulline supplementation improves endothelial function and blood pressure by increasing L-arginine availability. Other nutrients to consider include magnesium, taurine, and L-arginine.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Maharaj A, Fischer S, et al. Effects of L-Citrulline Supplementation on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2022 Oct 20;14(20):4396.

New review investigates vitamin C and the management of diabetic foot ulcers

Insulin resistance is preventable and reversible through lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, supplements, exercise and stress management. Weight loss and exercise are the best treatments for restoring the body’s ability to respond to insulin.

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are a significant health care problem in the United States. Type 2 diabetes affects more than 300 million people. Up to 15% of patients cannot take metformin because of kidney damage risks.

There are many different cofactors that can improve dysglycemia such as zinc, alpha lipoic acid, chromium, and vanadium.

According to a review published last month, researchers investigated the role of vitamin C and the management of diabetic foot ulcers.

This review consisted of seven studies ranging from 16 patients to 131 patients. The dosing ranged from 500 mg to 1000 mg per day or vitamin C status over an 8-to-16-week period.

Diabetic foot ulcers are complicated wounds resulting from the dysfunction of several major body systems that interfere with healing processes in which vitamin C plays an important role.

Vitamin C has been shown to improve neuropathic complications in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers. It also supports vascular function essential in wound healing and responds to oxidative stress in infections that interfere with healing.

Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin C deficiency and diabetic foot ulcer development, severity, and outcomes. Only a few clinical studies have evaluated increased vitamin C intake or supplementation for the prevention or treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

The studies in this review between 2012 and 2021 demonstrated that vitamin C supplementation improves healing of foot ulcers and mitigate oxidative stress. There is also a high prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in these patients.

As a result, diabetic individuals have additional micronutrient requirements for proper control of oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis.

Inositol is another nutrient that should also be considered for patients with diabetes.

Inositol acts as second messenger which regulates several hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin.

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in patients with insulin resistance. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of insulin resistance. As a result, the nutritional requirements of these patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these individuals.

Since diabetes is an increased risk factor for cognitive decline, other nutrients such as phosphatidylserine, GPC, and acetyl-l-carnitine are important. Phosphatidylserine is an essential brain nutrient that has been shown to improve the brain’s energy consumption of glucose.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Khanh Phuong Tong, Robert Intine, et al. Vitamin C and the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a literature review. J Wound Care. 2022 Sep 1;31(Sup):S33-S44. doi: 10.12968/jowc.2022.31.Sup9.S33.

A new review demonstrates the role of genistein in polycystic ovarian syndrome  

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with irregular menstrual periods, infertility, obesity, diabetes, excess hair growth, acne, and other hormonal difficulties. Researchers compared the effects of lifestyle changes alone or with placebo to lifestyle combined with metformin. They found that lifestyle modification combined with taking metformin resulted in increased weight loss. As a result, there was a lower body mass index (BMI), and improved menstruation.

According to a new review published this month in the European Journal of Pharmacology, researchers demonstrated the role of genistein in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Genistein is the most active and abundant isoflavone found in soy and has been shown to possess an array of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiangiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. Genistein also inhibits NF-Kβ activation as well as inhibits cell growth and metastasis. Although genistein is typically derived from a soy source, it can also be sourced from the botanical, sophora japonica.

This review investigated the effects and mechanisms of genistein in patients PCOS. The review included 13 articles, 4 human studies and 9 animal studies. The human studies consisted of 24 to 146 individuals between the ages of 18 and 40 years of age over a 3-to-6-month period with doses between 36 mg and 50 mg per day. These studies demonstrated that genistein supplementation may effectively improve PCOS-related symptoms by decreasing insulin resistance and anthropometric parameters, improving ovarian morphology, regulating reproductive hormones, and reducing oxidative stress as well as inflammation.

Other nutrients to consider to support PCOS:

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in women with PCOS. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of PCOS. As a result, the nutritional requirements of PCOS patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these women.

Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are both essential for patients with PCOS. The conversion of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol is of interest because errors here have been strongly involved in PCOS patients. Strong evidence supports that the body makes D-chiro-inositol from myo-inositol and more evidence suggests that some people are less able to make this conversion than others.  Along this spectrum, people who are completely unable to convert myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol are only going to benefit from supplementation with D-chiro-inositol. Other people who make the conversion, but with less-than-optimal efficiency, may benefit from large doses of myo-inositol. And other individuals in between, might see the best results from a blend of the two. Since this conversion is impaired in individuals with PCOS, it is important to always include D-chiro-inositol with myo-inositol supplementation. D-chiro-inositol is the more potent form of inositol for supporting insulin resistance, however, myo-inositol is need for oocyte quality and maturation. Therefore, supplementing with D-chiro-inositol alone cannot not fulfill myo-inositol’s roles that are specific and different from D-chiro-inositol, since it does not convert to myo-inositol.

Also, essential fatty acids should be consumed in our diets for overall health, but most individuals with insulin resistance are deficient. Fish oils improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. 

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNSSource: Ramin Nasimi Doost Azgomi, Arezoo Moini Jazani, et al. Potential roles of genistein in polycystic ovary syndrome: A comprehensive systematic review. Eur J Pharmacol. 2022 Sep;175275. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.175275.

New review of melatonin supplementation and depression

Depression is a major cause of disease burden worldwide which affects approximately 350 million people. Although there are numerous medications for the treatment of depression, less than 50% of patients take medications for depression.

According to a new review published last month in Behavior Brain Research, researchers investigated the effects of melatonin supplementation on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration and clinical depressive disorder.

This review consisted of 23 studies including 1,934 individuals over 18 years of age that assessed the effect of melatonin supplementation on serum concentration of BDNF or depression score.

Overall, melatonin supplementation did not demonstrate a significant effect on BDNF concentration but it improved depression by decreasing the score. The subgroup analysis showed that melatonin supplementation did have a significant decreasing effect on BDNF levels in doses ≤ 10mg/day with more than 4 weeks of duration in men.

This review demonstrates that melatonin supplementation has a decreasing effect on depression in all duration of studies and doses. Melatonin provides a protective effect on depressive symptoms as sleep disturbance is an independent risk factor in its development or recurrence. In addition, melatonin supplementation normalizes circadian rhythms and improves sleep disturbances and acts as an antidepressant by stabilizing NMDA receptor activity. Also, altered distribution of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with depression is associated with raised amounts of early REM sleep and decreased sleep onset latency to REM sleep. Treatment with melatonin has been shown to prolong the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep without affecting REM sleep.

Other nutrients to consider include essential fatty acids as most individuals are often deficient. Fish oils are essential for one’s overall health and reduce inflammation. 

Also, some natural alternatives to anti-depressants include Sceletium tortuosum and Saffron flower. Sceletium tortuosum has attracted increasing attention over past few decades for promoting a sense of wellbeing and treating depression andSaffron flower has had numerous studies demonstrating positive outcomes on MDD and has gone head to head with SSRIs demonstrating the same efficacy.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Shokri-Mashhadi-N, Darand M, et al. Effects of melatonin supplementation on BDNF concentrations and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Behav Brain Res. 2022 Aug 29;114083.

 

 

New Review Investigates the Efficacy of an IBS Diet in the Treatment of SIBO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be debilitating causing cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation. IBS can affect and one’s work, sleep and relationships.

Most treatments for IBS consist of medications that are often ineffective and can have numerous side effects.

According to a review published this month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the current recommendations regarding nutrition in IBS to determine if they are suitable for patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

A narrative literature review was carried out using several databases. Recent studies have demonstrated that dietary manipulation may have a role in mitigating SIBO gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, a low FODMAP diet proposed for IBS may promote a negative shift in the gut microbiome and exacerbate the existing dysbiosis in patients with SIBO.

On the other hand, supplementation with soluble fiber can lessen the symptoms in IBS and SIBO. In addition, specific probiotic supplementation may increase the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and regulate bowel movements. Optimal dietary patterns play a key role in the treatment of SIBO.

FODMAPs act as prebiotics and modulate the gut microbiome by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria and promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, so a low-FODMAP diet might be characterized as anti-prebiotic because of its reduction in beneficial bacteria species.

Most studies compared a low-FODMAP diet in IBS patients to traditional dietary recommendations, habitual diets or a high-FODMAP diet. None of the studies investigated

the impact of this diet in SIBO patients.

The effect of single strain probiotic supplementation on the modification of gut microbiome

was assessed in 11 studies. Only one study included patients with SIBO. The results

demonstrated that supplementation with Saccharomyces boulardii was associated with a significantly higher eradication rate and a decline in exhaled hydrogen compared to metronidazole therapy. The nine remaining studies were carried out in patients with IBS,

constipation, and healthy individuals.

Dietary fiber should also be considered an essential nutrient for the growth of beneficial bacteria as a prebiotic. The included studies support that increasing the

intake of fiber, particularly, soluble fiber, shows beneficial results in patients with GI

symptoms and modulation of the gut microbiome, however, studies in SIBO patients are still needed.

The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s ‘second brain,’ it is made up of a self-contained, complex network of neurons, neurotransmitters, and proteins embedded in the lining of the GI system. It is responsible for all aspects of the digestive process, from the esophagus to the stomach and small and large intestines and may be responsible for IBS symptoms.

There are other nutrients that can support patient with IBS. For example. Perilla frutescens is an herb native to Eastern Asia that demonstrates antispasmodic, prokinetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, which help normalize and promote health bowel function and provide relief from GI symptoms.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Wielgosz-Grochowska J, Domanski N, et al. Efficacy of an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Diet in the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2022 Aug 17;14(16):3382.

New review investigated vitamin D deficiency in PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with irregular menstrual periods, infertility, obesity, diabetes, excess hair growth, acne, and other hormonal difficulties. Researchers compared the effects of lifestyle changes alone or with placebo to lifestyle combined with metformin. They found that lifestyle modification combined with taking metformin resulted in increased weight loss. As a result, there was a lower body mass index (BMI), and improved menstruation.

In a new review published earlier month in the Journal of Clinical Medicine, researchers investigated the physiopathology in PCOS and vitamin D deficiency.

Pharmaceutical interventions provide some improvements but they do not correct many of the underlying factors and have side effects that may not be tolerated by patients. Many PCOS patients are overweight and have dietary habits that exacerbate the condition.

Previous research has demonstrated the importance of vitamin D in patients with PCOS. Women with PCOS are often vitamin D deficient, specifically those with a higher weight.

In addition, a vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which may lead to diabetes. Since women with PCOS and hirsutism tend to have lower levels of vitamin D than those without hirsutism, a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and hyperandrogenism can be suggested.

Vitamin D is also essential to mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, vitamin D has been shown to play a role in egg quality and fertility. In general text, women with PCOS have lower vitamin D levels compared to healthy individuals.

This review demonstrates the relationship between vitamin D and the hormonal and metabolic profile of PCOS patients as well as its role in fertility. Vitamin D should have broad significance to increase natural conception in women with PCOS with a goal to decrease costs related to in vitro fertilization procedures. Vitamin D supplementation women with PCOS is a safe strategy to improve their symptoms without adverse effects.

Other nutrients to consider to support PCOS:

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in women with PCOS. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of PCOS. As a result, the nutritional requirements of PCOS patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these women.

Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are both essential for patients with PCOS. The conversion of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol is of interest because errors here have been strongly involved in PCOS patients. Strong evidence supports that the body makes D-chiro-inositol from myo-inositol and more evidence suggests that some people are less able to make this conversion than others.  Along this spectrum, people who are completely unable to convert myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol are only going to benefit from supplementation with D-chiro-inositol. Other people who make the conversion, but with less than optimal efficiency, may benefit from large doses of myo-inositol. And, other individuals in between, might see the best results from a blend of the two. Since this conversion is impaired in individuals with PCOS, it is important to always include D-chiro-inositol with myo-inositol supplementation. D-chiro-inositol is the more potent form of inositol for supporting insulin resistance, however, myo-inositol is need for oocyte quality and maturation. Therefore, supplementing with D-chiro-inositol alone cannot not fulfill myo-inositol’s roles that are specific and different from D-chiro-inositol, since it does not convert to myo-inositol.

Also, essential fatty acids should be consumed in our diets for overall health, but most individuals with insulin resistance are deficient. Fish oils improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. 

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Morgante G, Darino I, et al. PCOS Physiopathology and Vitamin D Deficiency: Biological Insights and Perspectives for Treatment. J Clin Med. 2022 Aug 2;11(15):4509.

 

New study demonstrates the effects of magnesium supplementation in PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with irregular menstrual periods, infertility, obesity, diabetes, excess hair growth, acne, and other hormonal difficulties. Researchers compared the effects of lifestyle changes alone or with placebo to lifestyle combined with metformin. They found that lifestyle modification combined with taking metformin resulted in increased weight loss. As a result, there was a lower body mass index (BMI), and improved menstruation.

In a new study published last week in Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, researchers investigated the effects of abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne in women with PCOS.

Pharmaceutical interventions provide some improvements but they do not correct many of the underlying factors and have side effects that may not be tolerated by patients. Many PCOS patients are overweight and have dietary habits that exacerbate the condition.

This randomized clinical trial included sixty-four women with PCOS assigned to take 250 mg of magnesium supplementation per day or placebo over a 10-week period. Abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne were assessed by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics criteria, the Sinclair Scale, the Health Survey Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Global Acne Grading System.

As a result, magnesium supplementation significantly improved the quality of life including physical functioning, energy, fatigue, emotional wellbeing, social functioning, general health, and total quality of life compared to the placebo. No significant effects were observed on acne, alopecia, or abnormal uterine bleeding.

This study demonstrates that magnesium supplementation in women with PCOS has a significant positive effect on improving overall quality of life. Since magnesium is a coenzyme of more than 300 enzymes in the body as well as many chemical reactions require sufficient magnesium level, it is not surprising for optimal health the body depends on adequate intake of magnesium.

Other nutrients to consider to support PCOS:

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in women with PCOS. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of PCOS. As a result, the nutritional requirements of PCOS patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these women.

Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are both essential for patients with PCOS. The conversion of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol is of interest because errors here have been strongly involved in PCOS patients. Strong evidence supports that the body makes D-chiro-inositol from myo-inositol and more evidence suggests that some people are less able to make this conversion than others.  Along this spectrum, people who are completely unable to convert myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol are only going to benefit from supplementation with D-chiro-inositol. Other people who make the conversion, but with less than optimal efficiency, may benefit from large doses of myo-inositol. And, other individuals in between, might see the best results from a blend of the two. Since this conversion is impaired in individuals with PCOS, it is important to always include D-chiro-inositol with myo-inositol supplementation. D-chiro-inositol is the more potent form of inositol for supporting insulin resistance, however, myo-inositol is need for oocyte quality and maturation. Therefore, supplementing with D-chiro-inositol alone cannot not fulfill myo-inositol’s roles that are specific and different from D-chiro-inositol, since it does not convert to myo-inositol.

Also, essential fatty acids should be consumed in our diets for overall health, but most individuals with insulin resistance are deficient. Fish oils improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. 

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Jaripur M, Ghasemi-Tehrani H, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2022 Aug 2;20(1):110.

New review investigates the efficacy of probiotics in patients with IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be debilitating causing cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation. IBS can affect and one’s work, sleep and relationships.

Most treatments for IBS consist of medications that are often ineffective and can have numerous side effects.

According to a study published last month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the efficacy of probiotics in patient with IBS. The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in treating irritable bowel syndrome has been supported by an increasing number of clinical studies.

Although the role of gut dysbiosis in IBS pathogenesis and probiotics are demonstrated, specific strains and a personalized medicine approach is still lacking.

This systemic review set out to identify the most effective formulation and to discriminate which probiotics are most efficient in treating different symptoms in IBS. This review investigated 104 clinical studies from 2011 to 2021 revealing a prevalence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) demonstrated that formulations based on Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus had the highest efficacy, especially on quality of life, bloating, and abdominal pain. The clinical studies classified based upon improvement in quality of life and decreases in all IBS symptoms are based on a patient cohort of 82% women with a mean age of 36 years and suffering from IBS-M and IBS-D subtypes.

This review shows that probiotic strains such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis subps. lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are helpful in treating chronic and debilitating inflammatory diseases such as IBS. This is the first review to apply MCDA analysis of nutraceuticals for clinical applications with objective comparison of the beneficial effects of probiotic formulations in improving IBS symptoms was possible.

The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s ‘second brain,’ it is made up of a self-contained, complex network of neurons, neurotransmitters, and proteins embedded in the lining of the GI system. It is responsible for all aspects of the digestive process, from the esophagus to the stomach and small and large intestines and may be responsible for IBS symptoms.

There are other nutrients that can support patient with IBS. For example. Perilla frutescens is an herb native to Eastern Asia that demonstrates antispasmodic, prokinetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, which help normalize and promote health bowel function and provide relief from GI symptoms.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Ceccherini C, Daniotti S, et al. Evaluating the Efficacy of Probiotics in IBS Treatment Using a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 28;14(13):2689.

 

New study demonstrates the effects of collagen peptides on cardiovascular markers

Collagen supplementation has increased exponentially and has gained increasing attention, however, not all collagen is considered equal. Collagen supplements can come from a variety of sources such as, porcine, bovine, or marine. In addition, there are variations in quality and molecular weight which limit absorption and efficacy.

Collagen is digested in the gastrointestinal tract and mainly broken down into single amino acids and di-peptides and enter the blood stream and accumulate in various tissues depending on the molecular weight.

According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis published last month in the British Journal of Nutrition, researchers investigated the effects of collagen peptide supplementation on cardiovascular disease related biomarkers.

Collagen peptides play essential biological roles including inhibiting the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), acting as signal messengers in cellular processes in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, and activating the mTOR signaling pathway.

Over the last decade several clinical investigations targeted the effects of collagen peptides on cardiovascular disease-related markers producing conflicting results.

This review included 12 randomized, placebo-controlled trials published up until November 2021.  The dosing ranged from 900 mg per day up to 15 grams per day over a period of 6 to 12 weeks. As a result, the research team demonstrated that collagen peptide supplementation significantly decreased fat mass and increased fat-free mass based on body mass percentage. In addition, collagen peptide supplementation showed a significant reduce in serum LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Collagen peptides suppress high blood pressure by inhibiting ACE, activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and decreasing arterial stiffness by increasing nitric oxide. There was no effect on glycemic markers. Collagen peptides have several effects on lipid metabolism as well. It suppresses hepatic protein expression for fatty acid cholesterol synthesis as well a reduction in gene expression of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2).

This review demonstrated that collagen peptide supplementation reduces fat mass, LDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure while increasing fat-free mass.

Other benefits of collagen supplementation include improving skin, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance. It important to use a quality collagen supplement that has research behind it and is a low molecular weight to optimize absorption and efficacy.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Jalili Z, Jalili J, et al. Effects of Collagen Peptide Supplementation on Cardiovascular Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials. Br J Nutr. 2022 Jun 6;1-43.