August 14, 2022

New study demonstrates the effects of magnesium supplementation in PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with irregular menstrual periods, infertility, obesity, diabetes, excess hair growth, acne, and other hormonal difficulties. Researchers compared the effects of lifestyle changes alone or with placebo to lifestyle combined with metformin. They found that lifestyle modification combined with taking metformin resulted in increased weight loss. As a result, there was a lower body mass index (BMI), and improved menstruation.

In a new study published last week in Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, researchers investigated the effects of abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne in women with PCOS.

Pharmaceutical interventions provide some improvements but they do not correct many of the underlying factors and have side effects that may not be tolerated by patients. Many PCOS patients are overweight and have dietary habits that exacerbate the condition.

This randomized clinical trial included sixty-four women with PCOS assigned to take 250 mg of magnesium supplementation per day or placebo over a 10-week period. Abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne were assessed by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics criteria, the Sinclair Scale, the Health Survey Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Global Acne Grading System.

As a result, magnesium supplementation significantly improved the quality of life including physical functioning, energy, fatigue, emotional wellbeing, social functioning, general health, and total quality of life compared to the placebo. No significant effects were observed on acne, alopecia, or abnormal uterine bleeding.

This study demonstrates that magnesium supplementation in women with PCOS has a significant positive effect on improving overall quality of life. Since magnesium is a coenzyme of more than 300 enzymes in the body as well as many chemical reactions require sufficient magnesium level, it is not surprising for optimal health the body depends on adequate intake of magnesium.

Other nutrients to consider to support PCOS:

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in women with PCOS. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of PCOS. As a result, the nutritional requirements of PCOS patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these women.

Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are both essential for patients with PCOS. The conversion of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol is of interest because errors here have been strongly involved in PCOS patients. Strong evidence supports that the body makes D-chiro-inositol from myo-inositol and more evidence suggests that some people are less able to make this conversion than others.  Along this spectrum, people who are completely unable to convert myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol are only going to benefit from supplementation with D-chiro-inositol. Other people who make the conversion, but with less than optimal efficiency, may benefit from large doses of myo-inositol. And, other individuals in between, might see the best results from a blend of the two. Since this conversion is impaired in individuals with PCOS, it is important to always include D-chiro-inositol with myo-inositol supplementation. D-chiro-inositol is the more potent form of inositol for supporting insulin resistance, however, myo-inositol is need for oocyte quality and maturation. Therefore, supplementing with D-chiro-inositol alone cannot not fulfill myo-inositol’s roles that are specific and different from D-chiro-inositol, since it does not convert to myo-inositol.

Also, essential fatty acids should be consumed in our diets for overall health, but most individuals with insulin resistance are deficient. Fish oils improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation. 

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Jaripur M, Ghasemi-Tehrani H, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on abnormal uterine bleeding, alopecia, quality of life, and acne in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2022 Aug 2;20(1):110.

New review investigates the efficacy of probiotics in patients with IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be debilitating causing cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation. IBS can affect and one’s work, sleep and relationships.

Most treatments for IBS consist of medications that are often ineffective and can have numerous side effects.

According to a study published last month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the efficacy of probiotics in patient with IBS. The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in treating irritable bowel syndrome has been supported by an increasing number of clinical studies.

Although the role of gut dysbiosis in IBS pathogenesis and probiotics are demonstrated, specific strains and a personalized medicine approach is still lacking.

This systemic review set out to identify the most effective formulation and to discriminate which probiotics are most efficient in treating different symptoms in IBS. This review investigated 104 clinical studies from 2011 to 2021 revealing a prevalence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) demonstrated that formulations based on Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus had the highest efficacy, especially on quality of life, bloating, and abdominal pain. The clinical studies classified based upon improvement in quality of life and decreases in all IBS symptoms are based on a patient cohort of 82% women with a mean age of 36 years and suffering from IBS-M and IBS-D subtypes.

This review shows that probiotic strains such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis subps. lactis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus are helpful in treating chronic and debilitating inflammatory diseases such as IBS. This is the first review to apply MCDA analysis of nutraceuticals for clinical applications with objective comparison of the beneficial effects of probiotic formulations in improving IBS symptoms was possible.

The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s ‘second brain,’ it is made up of a self-contained, complex network of neurons, neurotransmitters, and proteins embedded in the lining of the GI system. It is responsible for all aspects of the digestive process, from the esophagus to the stomach and small and large intestines and may be responsible for IBS symptoms.

There are other nutrients that can support patient with IBS. For example. Perilla frutescens is an herb native to Eastern Asia that demonstrates antispasmodic, prokinetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, which help normalize and promote health bowel function and provide relief from GI symptoms.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Ceccherini C, Daniotti S, et al. Evaluating the Efficacy of Probiotics in IBS Treatment Using a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 28;14(13):2689.

 

New study demonstrates the effects of collagen peptides on cardiovascular markers

Collagen supplementation has increased exponentially and has gained increasing attention, however, not all collagen is considered equal. Collagen supplements can come from a variety of sources such as, porcine, bovine, or marine. In addition, there are variations in quality and molecular weight which limit absorption and efficacy.

Collagen is digested in the gastrointestinal tract and mainly broken down into single amino acids and di-peptides and enter the blood stream and accumulate in various tissues depending on the molecular weight.

According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis published last month in the British Journal of Nutrition, researchers investigated the effects of collagen peptide supplementation on cardiovascular disease related biomarkers.

Collagen peptides play essential biological roles including inhibiting the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), acting as signal messengers in cellular processes in cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, and activating the mTOR signaling pathway.

Over the last decade several clinical investigations targeted the effects of collagen peptides on cardiovascular disease-related markers producing conflicting results.

This review included 12 randomized, placebo-controlled trials published up until November 2021.  The dosing ranged from 900 mg per day up to 15 grams per day over a period of 6 to 12 weeks. As a result, the research team demonstrated that collagen peptide supplementation significantly decreased fat mass and increased fat-free mass based on body mass percentage. In addition, collagen peptide supplementation showed a significant reduce in serum LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Collagen peptides suppress high blood pressure by inhibiting ACE, activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and decreasing arterial stiffness by increasing nitric oxide. There was no effect on glycemic markers. Collagen peptides have several effects on lipid metabolism as well. It suppresses hepatic protein expression for fatty acid cholesterol synthesis as well a reduction in gene expression of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2).

This review demonstrated that collagen peptide supplementation reduces fat mass, LDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure while increasing fat-free mass.

Other benefits of collagen supplementation include improving skin, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance. It important to use a quality collagen supplement that has research behind it and is a low molecular weight to optimize absorption and efficacy.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Jalili Z, Jalili J, et al. Effects of Collagen Peptide Supplementation on Cardiovascular Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials. Br J Nutr. 2022 Jun 6;1-43.

 

 

 

New review investigates vitamin D supplementation in patients with IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be debilitating causing cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea and constipation. IBS can affect and one’s work, sleep and relationships.

Most treatments for IBS consist of medications that are often ineffective and can have numerous side effects.

According to a study published last month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation to see if it causes any improvements in the symptoms of IBS.

This systematic review and meta-analysis included all studies published until April 4, 2022. The search for randomized controlled trials assessing vitamin D efficacy in IBS with outcome including primary Irritable Bowel Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and secondary IBS quality of life (IBS-QoL) as well as serum vitamin D 25-OH was performed in six databases. The research team included 6 studies consisting of a total of 616 patients.

As a result, the pooled analysis found no difference between vitamin D and placebo in improving IBS-SSS. However, the pooled analysis favored vitamin D over placebo regarding increasing the serum level of vitamin D 15-OH and improving the IBS-QoL.

Vitamin D can impact the gastrointestinal tract by its immunomodulatory properties. In the pathogenesis of IBS, immunological and inflammatory roles are important as research has suggested that the activation of inflammatory mediators have a crucial role in the development of IBS development. For example, the upregulated mast cells, T-cells, and other pro-inflammatory cytokines are a few known key factors.

In addition, the increased inflammation upregulates the neural activity in the intestine leading to visceral hypersensitivity as well as abdominal pain. On the other hand, decreased inflammation can improve the sensory nervous system in the gut, causing normalization of gut functionality and reduced IBS symptoms. This can be explained by the presence of vitamin D receptors in the nervous system as they play a role in the synthesis, maintenance, and upregulation of neurotransmitters levels.

The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s ‘second brain,’ it is made up of a self-contained, complex network of neurons, neurotransmitters, and proteins embedded in the lining of the GI system. It is responsible for all aspects of the digestive process, from the esophagus to the stomach and small and large intestines and may be responsible for IBS symptoms.

There are other nutrients that can support patient with IBS. For example. Perilla frutescens is an herb native to Eastern Asia that demonstrates antispasmodic, prokinetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, which help normalize and promote health bowel function and provide relief from GI symptoms. In addition, there are some specific researched strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 that have been shown to reduce digestive discomfort and abdominal pain in individuals with IBS.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Abuelazm M, Muhammad S, et al. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Severity of Symptoms and the Quality of Life in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients, 14(13), 2618.

 

New study demonstrates the correlations between vitamin D levels and peripheral arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease

Over 10% of the adult population suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two leading underlying causes of end-stage kidney disease are due to type II diabetes and hypertension.

According to a new study published yesterday in Nutrients, researchers investigated the relationship between serum vitamin D 25-OH levels and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in non-dialysis patients with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D deficiency and baPWV are both independently associated with higher incidence of mortality and cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular events.

Vitamin D has an established role in mineral homeostasis and musculoskeletal function. Vitamin D is also known to exert extra-skeletal effects including modulation of endothelial function, immune function, inflammatory responses, and cell cycle regulation.

In addition, a vitamin D deficiency has been associated with albuminuria and impaired renal function in the general population as well as all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring long-term dialysis in pre-diabetic and type II diabetes patients.

This study consisted of 180 patients with chronic kidney disease stage three to five from a renal outpatient department between January and December 2016. Assessments included serum vitamin D 25-OH levels and BaPWV. Either left or right baPWV > 18.0 m/s was considered indicative of peripheral arterial stiffness (PAS).

In this study, 73 patients (41%) were shown to have PAS. Compared to those without PAS, patients with PAS were older and had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood pressure, higher parathyroid hormone levels, higher C-reactive protein levels, and lower levels of vitamin D levels. As a result, lower vitamin D levels and increased age were associated with PAS in patients with CKD.

Other nutrients to consider include fiber, resistant starch, fish oil, phosphatidylcholine, and n-acetyl-cysteine or glutathione.Fish oil supplementation has been shown to decrease protein in the urine as well as protect kidney function and slow the rate of kidney dysfunction. Doses up to 10 grams per day have been used.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Lee Chun-Jen, Hsieh Yi-Jen, et al. Correlation between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3–5 Patients. 11 June 2022, Nutrients, 14(12), 2429.

New study demonstrates vitamin B6 status influences essential fatty acid status

B vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients involved in numerous metabolic processes that play a significant role in cognitive health.

Previous research suggests a potential impact of aging and the relationship of vitamin B6

on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. Limited information is known about the interrelationships between vitamin B6 and PUFAs in the elderly population.

According to a study published earlier this month in Nutrients, researchers investigated the associations of vitamin B6 intake and plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) levels along with plasma PUFA concentrations and ratios in older adults. In addition, they further investigated the relationship of adequate vitamin B6 status with high plasma PUFA compared to a deficient vitamin B6 status.

This cross-sectional study consisted of 461 participants at the age of 60 years and older from NHANES 2003–2004. Nutrient intakes were assessed using two 24-h recalls and supplement questionnaires. Vitamin B6 and PUFA concentrations were assessed. As a result, a higher vitamin B6 level in older adults was associated with a higher level of EPA, DHA, EPA + DHA, EPA/AA, and (EPA + DHA)/AA. Also, adequate vitamin B6 status was associated with high EPA and EPA/AA status. These findings demonstrate that sufficient vitamin B6 status positively effects PUFA metabolism in older adults.

I previously shared the importance b-vitamin and its relationship to omega-3 status in cognitive health. There was an interesting study published January 6, 2016 in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. Prior studies have already established that B vitamins can slow cognitive decline in the elderly. This was most effective in those who had above average homocysteine levels, which is a common biomarker related to B vitamin status that may be toxic to the brain.  The research team found that there was a link between Omega-3 levels, homocysteine, and brain atrophy rates. There has been links between homocysteine and omega-3 fatty acids. As a result, B vitamins are essential for the synthesis of phospholipids.  In this study researchers investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid status had an effect on the treatment of B vitamins in mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Two hundred and sixty-six participants with MCI over 70 year of age were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Researchers performed baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of homocysteine, DHA, and EPA fatty acids. The final results for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. In contrast, the scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. Among all 3 outcome measures, higher concentrations of DHA alone significantly improved the cognitive effects of B vitamins, whereas EPA appeared to be less effective.

This study demonstrated that B vitamins had no effect on cognitive decline in MCI when omega-3 levels are low. However, when omega-3 levels are in an upper normal range, B vitamins slow cognitive decline and brain atrophy. These findings suggest that a combination of fish oil supplements and B vitamins may help to improve cognition and reduce age-related memory decline.

In conclusion, there are important synergistic interrelationships between omega-3 and b-vitamins. These studies demonstrate the importance of a comprehensive approach nutritionally and not a monotherapy approach.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Kim Hyojung, Enrione Evelyn B, et al. Associations of Vitamin B6 Intake and Plasma Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate with Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in US Older Adults: Findings from NHANES 2003-2004. Nutrients. 2022 Jun2;14(11):2336.

Abderrahim Oulhaja, Fredrik Jerneren, Helga Refsum, A. David Smith, Celeste A. de Jager. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 547-557, 2016.  

New review investigates the effects of omega-3 supplementation on skeletal muscle in older adults

Aging is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, sarcopenia and functional decline. The loss of muscle mass between the ages of 40 and 80 is approximately between 30% and 60% and is associated with disability, illness, and death. Age-related musculoskeletal decline is a significant risk for falls in the elderly.

Exercise and nutritional supplementation are currently recommended as preventative against the loss of muscle and muscle strength, however, most of the nutritional studies have focused on protein supplementation. Since sarcopenia is associated with increased inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis, omega-3-fatty have also been investigated.

According to a new review published today in Nutrients, researchers investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on alone and combined with resistance exercise on skeletal muscle in the elderly.

This systemic review and meta-analysis included 15 randomized controlled trials and one randomized, non-controlled trial consisting of 2,438 participants (1,660 females, 778 males). Dosing ranged from as little as 230 mg of EPA/DHA up to 5 grams of fish oil and one study used 14 grams of flaxseed oil. The study durations ranged from 6 weeks to 36 months.

As a result, this review demonstrated that omega-3 supplementation does not impact lean tissue mass but does improve lower body strength as wells as lower body functional performance. Supplementation was effective when taken alone, but less when taken in conjunction with resistance training. No impacts were observed for walking speed.

There finding are significant as lower body strength is preferentially affected by aging and sarcopenic individuals suffer from reduced functional performance. Tests such as the timed-up-and-go and sit-to-stand test were improved with omega-3 supplementation and are important predictors of functional ability in older adults.

Omega-3 fatty acids are incorporated into the cell membranes and improve the ability to recruit motor units enhancing the neuronal activation of muscle.

These findings demonstrate a role of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on muscle mass. Other nutrients to consider patients with sarcopenia include vitamin D, magnesium, vitamin C, collagen, BCAAs, tocotrienols, and probiotics.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Cornish S, Cordingley D, et al. Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation Alone and Combined with Resistance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2222.

 

New review demonstrates the benefits of blueberry supplementation in patients with metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are a significant health care problem in the United States. Type 2 diabetes affects more than 300 million people.

Insulin resistance is preventable and reversible through lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, supplements, exercise and stress management. Weight loss and exercise are the best treatments for restoring the body’s ability to respond to insulin.

According to a new review published two weeks ago in Food and Function, researchers investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on different biomarkers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which contain powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

This review consisted of 25 studies between published between 2007 and 2021. These studies ranged from 3 weeks to 24 weeks in length with a dosage of 13 grams to 300 grams as well as two using extracts. The results of review demonstrated a significant improvement in blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin levels. Anthocyanins found in blueberries have a role in regulating key enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism. All but three studies concluded that blueberry consumption positively impacted insulin resistance.

In addition, anthocyanins found in blueberries have a role in regulating key enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Blueberry supplementation also showed a significant effect on body weight reduction but not waist circumference or body mass index (BMI).

A diet rich in blueberries decreases the production of free radicals due to their antioxidant capacity. This review demonstrates that blueberry supplementation should be considered in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Inositol is another nutrient that should also be considered for patients with diabetes.

Inositol acts as second messenger which regulates several hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin.

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in patients with insulin resistance. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of insulin resistance. As a result, the nutritional requirements of these patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these individuals.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS Source: Azari H, Morovati A, et al. Beneficial effects of blueberry supplementation on the components of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Funct. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1039/d1fo03715c

New review investigates the role of resveratrol in MCI and AD

Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD) are a group of conditions that cause mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. These conditions affect one’s ability to function socially, personally, and professionally. It’s important to recognize that Alzheimer’s disease begins long before symptoms start just like many other conditions. There is evidence that simple prevention strategies can reduce the risk of ADRD by as much as 50%.

The prevalence of dementia for those over 65 years of age is 14% in men and 32% in women. By the age of 80, sixty three percent of those with dementia are women.

Resveratrol is a polyphenol with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  It has been widely publicized for its cardiovascular, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-aging benefits.  However, researchers believe it also has positive effects on the hippocampus, an area of the brain that is critical to functions such as memory, learning and mood.

According to a recent review published last month in the Journal of Medicinal Food, researchers investigated the role of resveratrol in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

This review consisted of five RCTs studies including three studies in patients with AD and two studies conducted in patients with MCI. These studies included 201 patients: 151 patients with AD and 52 patients with MCI. The patients’ ages ranged between 49 and 80 years of age and dosing on resveratrol was as low as 5 mg up to 1 gram twice daily.  

This review demonstrated that resveratrol supplementation can be an adjuvant to a patients’ therapeutic approach. Resveratrol has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and is effective in reducing biomarkers and disease scores and as a result, improves overall cognitive performance and improves brain metabolism. This is suggestive of a protective effect of resveratrol against early metabolic decline.

Other brain supportive nutrients to consider are GPC, CDP-choline, gingko biloba, and phosphatidylserine, and fish oil. GPC and CDP-choline are water soluble forms of choline that can cross the blood brain barrier and support brain health. These help make more acetylcholine, neurotransmitters, as well as phosphatidylcholine in the cell membranes. In addition, phosphatidylserine is an essential nutrient for brain function and is not found in the diet. Research has demonstrated that phosphatidylserine improves depressive symptoms, memory, and behavior.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Buglio DS, Marton LT, et al. The Role of Resveratrol in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review. J Med Food. 2022 Mar 28. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2021.0084.

 

 

 

New study investigates the effect of zinc supplementation on blood glucose levels in type II diabetes

Insulin resistance is preventable and reversible through lifestyle changes, proper nutrition, supplements, exercise and stress management. Weight loss and exercise are the best treatments for restoring the body’s ability to respond to insulin.

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are a significant health care problem in the United States. Type 2 diabetes affects more than 300 million people. Up to 15% of patients cannot take metformin because of kidney damage risks.

There are many different cofactors that can improve dysglycemia such as zinc, alpha lipoic acid, chromium, and vanadium.

According to a study published last month, researchers investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on blood glucose levels in different age groups of type II diabetes.

This randomized placebo-control trial included 144 diabetic patients. All the participants were randomly divided into Group 1 (zinc 20 mg/day) and Group 2 (control group with placebo). Each group was further divided into two age categories: category 1 (30-50 years of age) and category 2 (51-70 Years of age). Data collection included demographic data, anthropometric measurements, and a 24-h dietary recall. Laboratory assessment consisted of fasting glucose levels, HbA1C, and serum zinc levels taken at baseline and at the end of the study 60 days later. 

As a result, final fasting glucose levels were significantly lowered in the zinc supplementation group compared to placebo, however, the results were significant in the older age group (51-70 years). A similar trend was also found in the HbA1c, serum zinc levels and the BMI of the participants. These results demonstrate a better response to zinc supplementation among aged patients as compared to younger group, suggesting possible higher zinc demands with advanced age.

Inositol is another nutrient that should also be considered for patients with diabetes.

Inositol acts as second messenger which regulates several hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin.

Studies have shown that an inositol deficiency is common in patients with insulin resistance. There appears to be a reduced ability to process, metabolize, and effectively use inositol from foods which is a distinctive characteristic feature of insulin resistance. As a result, the nutritional requirements of these patients may not be met by a simple change in the diet and that inositol should be viewed as a conditionally essential nutrient in these individuals.

Since diabetes is an increased risk factor for cognitive decline, other nutrients such as phosphatidylserine, GPC, and acetyl-l-carnitine are important. Phosphatidylserine is an essential brain nutrient that has been shown to improve the brain’s energy consumption of glucose.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Aslam M, Bashir S, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on blood glucose level in different age groups of diabetes type 2. Nutr Health. 2022 Mar 29; 2601060221088382.