July 1, 2022

New study demonstrates the correlations between vitamin D levels and peripheral arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease

Over 10% of the adult population suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two leading underlying causes of end-stage kidney disease are due to type II diabetes and hypertension.

According to a new study published yesterday in Nutrients, researchers investigated the relationship between serum vitamin D 25-OH levels and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in non-dialysis patients with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D deficiency and baPWV are both independently associated with higher incidence of mortality and cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular events.

Vitamin D has an established role in mineral homeostasis and musculoskeletal function. Vitamin D is also known to exert extra-skeletal effects including modulation of endothelial function, immune function, inflammatory responses, and cell cycle regulation.

In addition, a vitamin D deficiency has been associated with albuminuria and impaired renal function in the general population as well as all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring long-term dialysis in pre-diabetic and type II diabetes patients.

This study consisted of 180 patients with chronic kidney disease stage three to five from a renal outpatient department between January and December 2016. Assessments included serum vitamin D 25-OH levels and BaPWV. Either left or right baPWV > 18.0 m/s was considered indicative of peripheral arterial stiffness (PAS).

In this study, 73 patients (41%) were shown to have PAS. Compared to those without PAS, patients with PAS were older and had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood pressure, higher parathyroid hormone levels, higher C-reactive protein levels, and lower levels of vitamin D levels. As a result, lower vitamin D levels and increased age were associated with PAS in patients with CKD.

Other nutrients to consider include fiber, resistant starch, fish oil, phosphatidylcholine, and n-acetyl-cysteine or glutathione.Fish oil supplementation has been shown to decrease protein in the urine as well as protect kidney function and slow the rate of kidney dysfunction. Doses up to 10 grams per day have been used.

By Michael Jurgelewicz, DC, DACBN, DCBCN, CNS

Source: Lee Chun-Jen, Hsieh Yi-Jen, et al. Correlation between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3–5 Patients. 11 June 2022, Nutrients, 14(12), 2429.